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Notes of Ch 4 Food Securities in India | Class 9th Economics

Study Material and Notes of Ch 4 Food Security in India Class 9th Economics

 Food security in India Class 9 Questions and Answers

 Topics in the chapter

  • Overview
  • What is food security?
  • Why food security?
  • Who are food-insecure?
  • Food Security in India
  • What is Buffer stock?
  • What is the Public Distribution System?
  • Current Status of Public Distribution System
  • Role of cooperatives in food security


→ Food security

→ Public Distribution System (PDS)

→ Government vigilance

→ Government action at times, when this security is threatened

What is food security and why is it important?

What is food security?

Food is an essential component for survival of human life. Food security can be defined as uncertainty in availability of food or adequate food.

Food security also applies to accessibility and availability of food to all at an affordable price. In few countries, there is scarcity of food and people have limited access. As the accessibility is less, the cost of food increases making affordability of food a difficult task. In order to have food security people opt for “Buffer stock” system, which means stock the excess food when available to have control over the prices.

Why food security?

Food security means availability of food and access to food at all times. It is useful in case of natural disasters such as earthquake, flood, drought, etc. during which production of food grains in effected. In 1943, the Bengal famine was the most devastating famine which affected many people. Food security can be achieved by meeting the present food requirement and saving the food for future.

Who are food-insecure?

In India, especially in rural areas landless, small farmers, petty self-employed workers such as blacksmith, blacksmith, etc. have food insecurity. Self-employed people can expect bread and butter only when they have job in hand, else it will be difficult for them to afford food. Many rural people migrate to urban areas in search of work (seasonally) and they will be hired on low wages. These types of labourers are also food insecure.

Other people who can be categorized under food insecurity are children under the age of 5, pregnant and nursing women, people who come under below the poverty line, some scheduled caste and OBC.

The states which are food-insecure are Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Food insecure can be categorized as Seasonal hunger and chronic hunger. Seasonal hunger can be defined as lack of available of food at a particular time of year such as food growing or harvesting time, or lack of construction labour work during the rainy season. Chronic hunger can be defined as lack of persistent availability of food in terms of both quantity and/or quality.

Food Security in India Class 9 ppt

 Food security refers to adequate supply of food to all. Food Security in India is a major concern as it has large undernourished population. According to Economic Survey 2011–12, production of wheat has increased more than four times in the state of Punjab and Haryana (1965-1995). When sufficient food grains were available Government of India has introduced systems to implement food security system through Public Distribution System and buffer stock.

What is Buffer stock?

This refers to storage of excess food grains in the warehouse of “Food Corporation of India”. These food grains are bought from farmers at minimum supply price i.e. pre-announced price of the government. This is called as buffer stock.

Buffer stock helps in preventing shortages and also providing food at stabilized price.

 What is the Public Distribution System?

Public Distribution System was launched for providing food grains to people from Food Corporation of India. Initially it was supply of food grains to all and this system had undergone a number of modifications in public interest to provide food grains to needy at subsidized rate.

In public interest, Government of India has launched three types of ration card under Public Distribution System, they are Antyodaya cards, Below Poverty Line (BPL) cards and Above Poverty Line (APL). Antyodaya cards are for the poorest of the poor people. Below Poverty Line (BPL) cards are meant for the people living below poverty line. Above Poverty Line (APL) cards are for people who are above poverty line.

There are about 5.5 fair price shops or ration shops across the country for implementation of Public Distribution System (PDS).

Current Status of Public Distribution System

Public distribution system was started as a scheme to benefit all people without any discrimination between poor and rich. In 1992, Government of India decided to launch Revamped Public Distribution System (RPDS) in 1992 to benefit people of remote and backward areas. Initially it was started in 1,700 blocks in the country. In 1997, Public Distribution System was revised to Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) which aimed at providing food grains for the poor section of the society. In 2000, two new schemes Antyodaya Anna Yojana and Annapurna Scheme were launched for poor and indigent senior citizen.

Merits of Public Distribution System:

Public Distribution System purchases food grains from Food Corporation of India and creates buffer stock. The main advantage of Public Distribution System is preventing food shortage and scarcity in areas which are deficit by supplying excess food grains from the available stock. It also helps in preventing sharp increase in prices and also providing food grains at concessional rate. People can easily get accessed to food grains at subsidized prices from fair price shops.

Demerits of Public Distribution System:

Food grains which are stored as buffer stock may get rotten or quality may get compromised over a period of time. This will result in wastage of the buffer stock. In addition, public distribution system dealers may get involved in selling the stored food grains in open market at a better price, resulting in individual benefits and loss for the Government. The storage of food grains adds cost to the government for warehousing and handling. Minimum Support Price (MSP) which is introduced by Government has encouraged farmers to divert land from production of coarse grains (these are usually the food grains which are consumed by poor, rice and wheat).

Role of cooperatives in food security

Cooperatives have been playing a very important in selling food grains at low price in FPS (fair price shops) to sell food grains. Cooperative societies are more active in in western and southern part of India. There are many states which have been benefited by cooperatives such as Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra etc.

In Tamil Nadu, majority of fair price shops are successively run by cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy sells milk and vegetables at a concessional rate. In Gujarat, Anand Milk Union Limited which is commonly called as Amul, is a known name in India which offers milk and milk products. It promotes dairy farming and offers a range of dairy products. In Maharashtra, Academy of Development Studies works for the welfare and development of tribal and rural communities. They have developed grain banks for food security. People deposit excess grains at these banks and later withdraw it. Bank members can also avail grain loans and return with interest in the next season.

National Food for Work Programme

This programme was initiated by minister of rural development division of central government on November 14, 2004. It was first initiated in 150 most backward districts of the country. This is an employment programme aimed at providing wages to poor people who are ready to do manual unskilled labor work. It is completely funded by central Government and under this programme food grains are provided to the state, free of cost but the transportation and related costs should be borne by State Governments. Collector or the nodal officer at the district level will be responsible for this programme.

Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)

This scheme is sponsored by Government of India and first started in December 2000. The aim of this Yojana was to provide food to people below the poverty line. It was first implemented in Rajasthan after a thorough survey by Government officials to provide rice and wheat at the most subsidized price. One crore of people living BPL have been benefitted with Public Distribution System under this programme. The scheme was expanded twice in June 2003 and again in August 2004 adding more people to it. It had more than 2 crore families under Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)


It is a form of financial aid which is extended by the Government to the producer of essential commodities in order to allow the products to reach the market through Government schemes at an affordable price. The aim of providing subsidy is to reduce the market price of the product.

2018-10-01T12:53:27+00:00 Categories: NCERT Solutions For Class 9|0 Comments
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