Hello, students, today we are going to start with the new chapter of science that is Food and Nutrition.
Now, living things need food to survive. Some living things can make their own food. They are called as Autotrophs. Auto it means self, trophs it means nutrition. It means autotroph means the one who can make their own food. Now, animals cannot make their own food because they lack chlorophyll. They have to depend upon other living things such plants or animals for their food. Hence, animals are called as heterotrophs. Hetero it means other, trophs means nutrition. So, students, heterotrophs are animals which depend on other animals for their nutrition. Now, some plants like the dodder and the funguses are heterotrophic too. Now, dodder, it is nothing but it is a parasitic plant. It lives on other plants and obtains the nutrients from it. Funguses, these are the plants which grow on dead decaying matter and obtain the nutrients from them.
All living things students, need food for growth and to repair the wear and tear of their bodies. Now, what is wear and tear? Wear and tear, it means damage. Carbohydrates, Proteinaceous substances. Proteinaceous substances it means the substance which contains proteins like milk, meat, eggs, they are proteinaceous substance. Next, fatty substances, fatty substances they are the substances which contain fats like cheese, butter, ghee etc. So, students, carbohydrates, proteinaceous substances, fatty substances and also minerals and vitamins, they are present in the items of our daily diet. Now, minerals like calcium, potassium, magnesium etc. Vitamins like A, B, C, D, E and K. Now, these are the various items in our foods such as rice, then we have bhakaris, chapattis etc. Now these, that is rice, bhakaris, chapattis they are all starchy foods. Now, starchy food is nothing but it is a type of carbohydrates, students. So, carbohydrates form a major part of these foods. Now, we also have protein foods such as dals, now dals, in dals we have different types the first one is tur also called as arhar, the next one is udad that is black gram, next we have moong that is green gram and masoor that is lentils. Now, protein foods it also include pulses. In pulses, students we have chana that is Bengal gram, the next pulse is rajma also called as red kidney beans, the next one is matki commonly called as moth beans, the next one is chavali that is black eye beans. Now, let’s see other protein foods. In that we have fish and meat. So, these are all your protein rich foods that is dals, pulses, fish and meat.
Now, let us study the second thing that is, we get salts and vitamins from food items like cucumber, leafy vegetables and carrots. We get fats from oil, ghee and butter and we have many more. Now, students, for good nourishment, it is important that carbohydrates, proteins, fats as well as minerals and vitamins are provided in the proper proportion. So, your diet should include everything that is carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins.
Now, we get energy from carbohydrates, proteins as well as from fats. Vitamins they are necessary for ensuring that all the life processes are carried out smoothly. And while the elements such as salts they are necessary for bringing about the functions of enzymes, students. So, here we have completed your carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals which are which are essential in your diet, students. So, students….
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