Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman popularly known as Sir C. V. Raman was born at Tiruchirappalli in Southern India on November 7th, 1888 in British period. His father was a lecturer and he acquired the skills of maths and physics from him. He graduated from Presidency College, Madras, in 1902. He studied B.A. and M. A. with the highest distinctions.
While traveling to Europe, C. V. Raman noticed the blue color of glaciers and the Mediterranean Sea. Curious Raman wanted to understand the reason and he carried out various experiments to understand the concept. He experimented on the scattering of light by water and ice. He utilized monochromatic light which was being emitted from a mercury lamp and allowed to fall on the transparent surface of water and ice and recordings were made on a spectrograph. The lines which were obtained in the spectrum were referred to as ‘Raman Lines’ and the effect was called as ‘Raman effect’. He presented his theory in Bangalore on 16 March 1928 and won the Nobel Prize in Physics. Peter Pringsheim was able to successfully reproduce the effects and termed the coins ‘Raman Lines’ and as ‘Raman effect’. The great scientist breathes his last on 21 November 1970.
As the name says, it is a form of spectroscopy which deals with the scattering of inelastic scattering of monochromatic light. Inelastic scattering refers to the frequency of photons in a monochromatic light upon interaction with the sample. Laser light is used for producing monochromatic light which is absorbed by the sample and then re-emitted. The emitted frequency will be different from the original monochromatic light and is called as Raman Effect. The change in frequency provides vibrational, rotational and low-frequency transitions in molecules. This theory is use to study solid, liquid and gas samples.
- Sir C. V. Raman was awarded Nobel Prize for Physics for his work Raman scattering and Raman Effect in 1930.
- The government of India has honored him with Bharat Ratna the highest civilian award of India in 1954.
- His other prominent achievements include
- Fellow of the Royal Society in 1924 and knighted in 1929
- Franklin Medal in 1941
- Lenin Peace Prize in 1957