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so students in this model will look at the nuclear fuel as a source of energy the advantages of using the nuclear energy and limitations of using nuclear energy firstly let us begin by understanding what is nuclear energy energy harnessed from the nucleus of an atom is called nuclear energy . so let’s see how this is harnessed this can be harnessed in two ways. the first one is nuclear fission and the second one is nuclear fusion. now what is nuclear fission splitting up of heavy nucleus into lighter one is called nuclear fission and what is fusion nuclear fusion is a combination of two lighter nuclear to form heavy nucleus so in short students fission is splitting and fusion is combination .now let’s discuss nuclear fission when we discuss nuclear fission . here we have this nuclear reactor now what is a nuclear reactor nuclear power reactor is extensively used for power generation as traditional fossil fuels like coal our extinction the nuclear reactor is a source of intense heat which is in turn use for generation of power now there are three main component so  let’s see which are the three important component of a nuclear reactor the first component is a fuel element the second component is moderator and the third component is control rods so let us learn each of them in detail firstly to begin with fuel elements now the main fuel element which a nuclear generator has is fashionable uranium-235 or plutonium 239 can also be used as a fuel element now for assurance thermal Neutron are capable of producing fission reaction that uranium 235 let’s understand how this happens here we have this uranium 235 when uranium 235 is bombarded by slow-moving neutrons that is thermal neutrons they collide with uranium 235 and uranium 235 splits into barium  and Krypton with the ejection of three neutrons now the mass of barium the three neutrons and Krypton is slightly less than uranium 235 and this mass gets converted into heat so difference in mass number of the lighter nuclei with respect to the heavy nucleus leads to the liberation of heat energy now this process doesn’t end here it’ll continue because this 3 neutrons will go further and hit three separate uranium-235 and from this that will be ejection of nine neutrons so  here you can see this nine neutrons have come up this nine neutrons will further go and hit nine uranium-235 and in a very short time a huge amount of heat energy is generated and as a very huge amount of heat energy is generated this you can see is the example of uncontrolled chain reaction so if this reaction is not controlled in a very short span of time a huge amount of energy is generated and it can be used for destructive purposes that is a atom bomb  now for the students let us come to the second part and understand what is a moderate to do now the moderator plays the role of more moderating this particular reaction so moderator has a capability to moderate of slow down this high-energy neutrons to deuterium which is nothing but a heavier hydrogen has a part to slow down the neutron speed because the deuterium is very heavy  so when a slow-moving neutron goes and hits the deuterium its kinetic energy will decrease. now further students here this other control rods now what is a function of the control rods the main purpose of control rod is to absorb excess neutrons now to increase the rate of nuclear fission sometimes what is done is this rod can be removed from the moderator so if you remove the fission reaction will expand faster now this is how it works so this neutrons are made incident on the control rods that is cadmium so when they are incident on cadmium excess of this neutrons are absorbed and only a limited number of neutrons are left to carry forward efficient process so this is how it happens so this when it is control is called control chain reaction now for the students let us say in this particular section heat is produced the heat energy released in this process is absorbed by the coolant with then passes through the coils of a heat exchanger containing water so this will go to the coolant and from the coolant it goes into the heat exchanger now when it goes into the heat exchanger there’s water so the water in the heat exchanger gets heated and gets converted into steam now we all know has a very high pressure so this particular steam most of this narrow pipes and after moving to this particular narrow pipes the steam is used to rotate the turbine so when the turbine rotates the turbines is connected to the generator so in the generator the turbine makes the armature coil to rotate in the magnetic field and then the armature coil rotates in the magnetic field current is induced  and we have induced EMF so students in this manner electricity is produced in a nuclear reactor and this was the basic walking of a nuclear reactor for the students let us understand that advantages of using the nuclear energy the first advantage a very small amount of nuclear fuel such as uranium 235 can produce a tremendous amount of energy the second advantage only the nuclear fuel is loaded into a nuclear power plant it continues to release energy over a long period so once the nuclear fuel is loaded the energy it emanates is for a very long Period now let us see what are the limitations why don’t we use this on a very large scale the first limitation it is not a clean source of energy because very harmful nuclear radiation are produced in the process which are highly energetic  and penetrating  now the second limitation is the waist obtained from the nuclear power plant causes a high degree of environmental pollution so the students was the advantages and limitations of using nuclear energy thank you..

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2017-04-18T04:56:41+00:00 Categories: ICSE-X|Tags: |0 Comments
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